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Gingival Pigmentation Thesis Statements

1. Ciçek Y, Ertaş U. The normal and pathological pigmentation of oral mucous membrane: a review. J Contemp Dent Pract 2003; 4 ( 3): 76– 86. [PubMed]

2. Soliman MM, Al Thomali Y, Al Shammrani A, El Gazaerly H. The use of soft tissue diode laser in the treatment of oral hyper pigmentation. Int J Health Sci (Qassim) 2014; 8 ( 2): 133– 40. [PMC free article][PubMed]

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4. Eid HA, Syed S, Soliman AN. The role of gingival melanin pigmentation in inflammation of gingiva, based on genetic analysis. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5 ( 4): 1– 7. [PMC free article][PubMed]

5. Eisen D. Disorders of pigmentation in the oral cavity. Clin Dermatol 2000; 18 ( 5): 579– 87. [PubMed]

6. Unsal E, Paksoy C, Soykan E, Elhan AH, Sahin M. Oral melanin pigmentation related to smoking in a Turkish population. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2001; 29 ( 4): 272– 7. [PubMed]

7. Babaee N , Nooribayat S . Frequency of oral pigmentation in patients referred to Babol Dental School (2008–2009) . The Journal of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences 2011. ; 15 ( 3): 87 90 .

8. Karydis A, Bland P, Shiloah J. Management of oral melanin pigmentation. J Tenn Dent Assoc 2012; 92 ( 2 ): 10 – 5 ; quiz 16–7. [PubMed]

9. Hajifattahi F, Azarshab M, Haghgoo R, Lesan S. Evaluation of the Relationship between Passive Smoking and Oral Pigmentation in Children. J Dent (Tehran) 2010; 7 ( 3): 119– 23. [PMC free article][PubMed]

10. Regezi JA , Sciubba JJ , Jordan RCK . Oral pathology: clinical pathologic correlations . 4th ed . Saunders, Philadelphia; ; 2003. . p.129 .

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12. Vellappally S, Fiala Z, Smejkalová J, Jacob V, Somanathan R. Smoking related systemic and oral diseases. Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove) 2007; 50 ( 3): 161– 6. [PubMed]

13. El_Batran MM , Soliman NL , Mikael FF . Passive smoking and alveolar bone density. Aust J BasiApplSci 2009; 3( 2): 713– 9.

14. Kurahashi N, Inoue M, Liu Y, Iwasaki M, Sasazuki S, Sobue T, et al. Passive smoking and lung cancer in Japanese non-smoking women: a prospective study. Int J Cancer 2008; 122 ( 3): 653– 7. [PubMed]

15. Kaur S, Cohen A, Dolor R, Coffman CJ, Bastian LA. The impact of environmental tobacco smoke on women’s risk of dying from heart disease: a meta-analysis. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2004; 13 ( 8): 888– 97. [PubMed]

16. George L, Granath F, Johansson AL, Annerén G, Cnattingius S. Environmental tobacco smoke and risk of spontaneous abortion. Epidemiology 2006; 17 ( 5): 500– 5. [PubMed]

17. Brook I. The impact of smoking on oral and nasopharyngeal bacterial flora. J Dent Res 2011; 90 ( 6): 704– 10. [PubMed]

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21. Hanioka T, Tsutsui A, Yamamoto M, Haresaku S, Shimada K, Watanabe T, et al. Impact of various effects of smoking in the mouth on motivating dental patients to quit smoking. Int J Stat Med Res 2013; 2( 1): 40– 6.

22. Environics Research Group Ltd . Final Report: Evaluation of New Warnings on Cigarette Packages . Toronto, Canada: : Canadian Cancer Society Focus Canada; ; 2001. : 33 .

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24. Jahangiri L, Reinhardt SB, Mehra RV, Matheson PB. Relationship between tooth shade value and skin color: an observational study. J Prosthet Dent 2002; 87 ( 2): 149– 52. [PubMed]

25. Tamai Y, Tsuji M, Wada K, Nakamura K, Hayashi M, Takeda N, et al. Association of cigarette smoking with skin colour in Japanese women. Tob Control 2014; 23 ( 3): 253– 6. [PubMed]

26. Moravej-Salehi E, Moravej-Salehi E, Hajifattahi F. Passive Smoking: Oral and Dental Effects. Iran J Public Health 2015; 44 ( 4): 600– 1. [PMC free article][PubMed]

27. Tanaka K, Miyake Y, Hanioka T, Arakawa M. Active and passive smoking and prevalence of periodontal disease in young Japanese women. J Periodontal Res 2013; 48 ( 5): 600– 5. [PubMed]

28. Tanaka K, Miyake Y, Sasaki S, Ohya Y, Miyamoto S, Matsunaga I, et al. Active and passive smoking and tooth loss in Japanese women: baseline data from the osaka maternal and child health study. Ann Epidemiol 2005; 15 ( 5): 358– 64. [PubMed]

29. Madani SM, Thomas B. Evaluation of gingival pigmentation in children exposed to and not exposed to environmental tobacco smoking. SRM J Res Dent Sci 2014; 5 ( 1): 21– 5.

30. Nadeem M, Shafique R, Yaldram A, López R. Intraoral distribution of oral melanosis and cigarette smoking in a Pakistan population. Int J Dent Clin 2011; 3 ( 1): 25– 8.

31. Sridharan S, Ganiger K, Satyanarayana A, Rahul A, Shetty S. Effect of environmental tobacco smoke from smoker parents on gingival pigmentation in children and young adults: a cross-sectional study. J Periodontol 2011; 82 ( 7): 956– 62. [PubMed]

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35. Barnea Z, Rahav G, Teichman M. The reliability and consistency of self-reports on substance use in a longitudinal study. Br J Addict 1987; 82 ( 8): 891– 8. [PubMed]

Background: Being a science of beauty, beautiful smile is an integral part of contemporary dental practice. Gingival hyperpigmentation is considered an esthetic problem that needs a patient centered management. Dental operators are attracted to laser benefits not only during surgery but also for postoperative status. This review aimed to assess laser use in esthetic removal of gingival hyperpigmentation in comparison to conventional methods. Materials and Methods: An electronic database search on PubMed and Cochrane library without date restriction was done and clinical studies in which laser was used for esthetic gingival depigmentation were selected and evaluated. Out of the initial search that yielded 183 studies, 21 were considered potentially relevant for the present review, out of which only 4 were finally selected. They studied the effect of laser on depigmentation, chair time, bleeding index, patient satisfaction and repigmentation. Results: The analysis of the results shows that the assessed studies are too limited in number beside exhibiting small sample sizes. They are clinically heterogeneous so that a solid evidence based conclusion cannot be reached. Conclusion: Researchers should be attracted to this research gap. Randomized clinical trials with a larger sample size, different laser parameters and longer follow up are strongly recommended.


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