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Bibliography Example Website No Author No Date

There are two options for citing this source in-text:

1) A shortened version of the title (2 - 3 words) or the full title if it is short, date of publication, and heading of a section in the article/text and/or paragraph number placed in brackets at the end of the sentence. Write the title in mixed case and in quotations marks. All of these examples are correct:

("Understanding Information," n.d., para. 2).

("Understanding Information," n.d., "Introduction").

("Understanding Information," n.d., "Introduction," para. 2).

2) Alternatively, the citation may be integrated into the sentence with a signal phrase and narrative. If lengthy, abbreviate the organization or group name:

According to the website Infogineering, “single-tasking, and keeping the mind focused on one issue at a time” is a potential solution for reducing “information overload” (“Understanding Information,” n.d., "Solutions"). 


APA rules for in-text citation change depending on the number/type of author(s). Count the authors and follow the rule below:

Work with ONE author
Cite the last name of the author in every in-text citation:
> The study demonstrated how "APA style can be challenging for college students" (Bedford, 2010, p. 8).
> Smith (2009) discovered that APA style is a challenging citation format for first-time learners (p. 199).
> According to Smith, APA style is a challenging citation format for first-time learners (2009, p. 199).
Work with TWO authors
Combine both names, with "&" in brackets or "and" in the signal phrase:
> Research conducted by Bedford and Smith (2008) suggests college students struggle when using APA style. This difficulty can be attributed to the fact that many students did not purchase a style manual or failed to ask their teacher or librarian for help (p. 199).
> Research has suggested that college students struggle when using APA style because they do not acquire the necessary resources or seek additional support on-campus (Bedford & Smith, 2008, p. 199).
Work with THREE to FIVE authors
List all last names in signal phrase or brackets for the first in-text citation. If you cite the source again, use the first author's last name with "et al."
> Contrary to popular belief, the evidence showed that Leif Eriksson was "the first European to set foot on North American soil, almost 500 years before Columbus" (Wilson, Kravitz, Thomson, & Petty, 2011, pp. 94-98).
> Wilson et al. (2011) concluded that Leif Eriksson was "the first European to set foot on North American soil, almost 500 years before Columbus" (pp. 94-98).
Work with SIX or more authors
For all in-text citations, use the first author's name followed by et al. in the signal phrase or in brackets:
> In a randomized control trial conducted on diabetic patients, Shaughnessy et al. (2007) found the medication to be effective in 72% of patients (p. 109).
> Multiple studies have demonstrated that traumatic experiences in early childhood can increase the risk of addiction (Okoye et al., 2016, p. 84).
Work with a GROUP, ORGANIZATION or CORPORATE author
Cite the full name of the group or organization. If it is lengthy, cite full name in the first citation and use an abbreviation for following citations:
> The Canadian Medical Association (CMA) concluded there is no causal link between vaccinations and the increase in clinical diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders. Moreover, the CMA warned that such assumptions may lead to the return of childhood illnesses like the measles (2010, pp. 18-21).
> According to Statistics Canada, "[s]ince the early 1990s, Canada has welcomed an average of almost 250,000 immigrants annually" (2016, para. 2).
Work with NO author specified
First, check if there is a group or organization responsible for the content. If you cannot locate one, cite the entire or a shortened version of the title of the work:
> Google was involved in anti-competitive practices ("Patent Trials," 2010, para. 3).
> It was reported that Calgary's office vacancy rate in the downtown core is almost 25% ("Calgary Downtown Vacancy," 2016, para. 1).
INTERVIEW or PRESENTATION (Unpublished)
Cite IN-TEXT ONLY, no reference list entry is needed. Cite in-text as a personal communication; include initials and last name of the person(s) and the full date. A reference list entry is only needed if you read or listened to the interview/presentation in a print or electronically published source.
> A registered nurse explained how "elderly patients with dementia may wander off the premises of nursing homes" (J. McGill, personal communication, October 12, 2015).
> Plagiarism is a serious violation of academic honesty policies at Bow Valley College (L. Peters, personal communication, September 12, 2016).
SECONDARY SOURCE (A source found inside a source)
If you want to use a source quoted, paraphrased, or summarized in a source, cite or refer to original source(s) IN-TEXT ONLY and cite the actual source you are using both in-text and in the reference list.

There are 3 options: (1) Place original author(s) and year in the signal phrase or brackets and use the phrase “as cited in.” before the actual source; (2) Include in-text citation(s) to the original source(s) in a quote; or (3) Use a phrase such as “According to a research study” or “The research has demonstrated” to refer to the original source(s):
 

Example 1:

Smith (the secondary source) refers to the ideas of Johnson (the original source):

> Option 1 - Johnson (2008) argued that the Calgary stampede is rooted in conservative political ideologies (as cited in Smith, 2013, pp. 102-103).

In the References list at the end of your assignment, only cite the source by Smith.

Example 2:

Holden et al. (the secondary source) cite multiple research studies (the original sources):

> Option 2 - An increasing amount of critical analysis and evidence have undermined "the notion that digital natives have a unique aptitude for digital technologies (Hargittai & Feldman, 2010; Jones & Czerniewicz, 2010; Hope, 2011)” (Holden et al., 2012, p. 18). 

OR 

> Option 3 - Multiple research studies have undermined "the notion that digital natives have a unique aptitude for digital technologies" (Holden et al., 2012, p. 18).

In the References list at the end of your assignment, only cite the source by Holden et al. 

Newspaper article (from the newspaper’s website) with no author

Proper Bibliographic Reference Format:

  • Bibliographic references are double-spaced and indented half an inch after the first line.
  • If there is no author, the article title comes first.
  • For titles of newspapers, use italics and "headline" style capitalization.
  • Use the URL of the homepage of the newspaper to avoid non-working URLs.
  • It is no longer necessary to include the date of retrieval.

Barcelona to ban burqa in municipal buildings. (2010, June 14).  Retrieved from http://gulfnews.com

In-Text Citations:

  • Citations are placed in the context of discussion using the author’s last name and date of publication.
  • When a work has no identified author, cite in text the first few words of the article title using double quotation marks, “headline- style” capitalization, and the year.

(“Barcelona to Ban Burqa,” 2010)

  • Alternatively, you can integrate the citation into the sentence by means of narrative.
  • There must be a total match between the reference list and the parenthetical citation, so the article title must stand in place of an author’s name in the essay.

“Barcelona to Ban Burqa” (2010) contends that the move is aimed at all dress that impedes identification.

 

Website with no author and no date

Proper Bibliographic Reference Format:

  • Bibliographic references are double-spaced and indented half an inch after the first line.
  • If there is no author, the article title comes first.
  • If there is no date, use the abbreviation n.d.
  • It is no longer necessary to include the date of retrieval.

United Arab Emirates architecture. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.uaeinteract.com/

In-Text Citations:

  • Citations are placed in the context of discussion using the author’s last name and date of publication.
  • When a work has no identified author, cite in text the first few words of the article title using double quotation marks, “headline-style" capitalization, and the year.

(“United Arab Emirates Architecture,” n.d.)

  • Alternatively, you can integrate the citation into the sentence by means of narrative.
  • There must be a total match between the reference list and the parenthetical citation, so the article title must stand in place of an author’s name in the essay.

“United Arab Emirates Architecture” (n.d.) describes building materials used in early settlements.

 

Journal or magazine article (from library database or online) with no author

Proper Bibliographic Reference Format:

  • Bibliographic references are double-spaced and indented half an inch after the first line.
  • If there is no author, the article title comes first.
  • For titles of journals or magazines, use italics and "headline" style capitalization.
  • Use the URL of the homepage of the journal or magazine to avoid non-working URLS
  • It is no longer necessary to include the date of retrieval.

Famine relief: Just a simple matter of supplying food? (2002). Nutrition Noteworthy, 5(1). Retrieved from http://escholarship.org/uc/uclabiolchem_nutritionnoteworthy

In-Text Citations:

  • Citations are placed in the context of discussion using the author’s last name and date of publication.
  • When a work has no identified author, cite in text the first few words of the article title using double quotation marks, “headline” style capitalization, and the year.

(“Famine Relief,” 2002)

  • Alternatively, you can integrate the citation into the sentence by means of narrative.
  • There must be a total match between the reference list and the parenthetical citation, so the article title must stand in place of an author’s name in the essay.

“Famine Relief” (2002) examines the causes of poverty and famine in Africa.

 

Works With an Anonymous Author

When a work’s author is designated as “Anonymous,” cite in text the word Anonymous followed by a comma and the date:

(Anonymous, 2010)

In the reference list, an anonymous work is alphabetized by the word Anonymous

Anonymous. (2010). Food safety shake-up needed in the USA. The Lancet, 375(9732), 2122. Retrieved from http://www.thelancet.com

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