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What Is Cyber Bullying Essay Outline

You’ve decided to write a persuasive essay, and the topic you’ve chosen is cyber bullying—specifically, something should be done about it, but what?

The core, or the “guts,” of your essay should come from your own thoughts and views on the issue. To really make an impact, though, you should support your arguments with citations from credible outside sources.

What Makes a Source Credible?

Good question. Credibility (aka “believability”) can come from one of several factors:

  • The source is a person or organization that is an authority on the issue. For our purposes, this could be school administrators, educators, psychologists, and so forth.
  • The source is an established commentator. This could be a well-known opinion columnist, for example, or a newspaper byline. Such sources don’t have to be experts in a related field so much as having established authority and objectivity in the past.
  • The source is someone with direct experience with the issue. This could easily be, for example, someone who has experienced cyber bullying first hand. (Check with your prof on this one, though. He might not accept an interview with your roommate as a credible research source. Your prof is more likely to prefer you summarize someone’s experiences as printed in an already published source.)
  • The source is a person or organization that will be directly involved in this issue, now or in the future—for example, law enforcement or legislators.

Still not sure what I mean?  Let me give you some examples of what is not a credible source:

  • Random Internet bloggers.
  • People with obvious political biases or agendas (even if they’re major media figures).
  • People with ulterior motives (thus lacking objectivity).
  • Anyone who does not have a demonstrated authority to make credible statements.

Note:It’s acceptable to use non-authoritative sources that are highly persuasive, but it’s sort of like starting a campfire with gasoline. It might work, but it might blow up in your face.

Want a little more help determining whether sources are credible? Read How to Apply the CRAAP Test to Essay Sources.

If you have a pretty good sense of what makes a source credible but aren’t sure where to find credible outside sources, I’ve done a little bit of research for you. Here are 12 cyber bullying articles that you can use in your persuasive essay.

I’ve also included MLA 8 citations and APA citations for your convenience. (If you’re citing in APA format, remember to change the current date of access to the date you accessed the source, if relevant.)

3 Cyber Bullying Articles on the Definition of Cyber Bullying

So what the heck is cyber bullying? Is it being mean to computers? The following sources are important for establishing your definition of this phenomenon.

Cyber bullying article #1: Cyberbullying

This article not only contains a definition of cyber bullying, but also includes a discussion of its effects, signs of cyber bullying, and tips for parents to help their children who may be suffering from cyber bullying. Additionally, the article links to additional resources for parents, children, and teens.

The information in this article is published by The Nemours Center for Children’s Health Media. It’s part of The Nemours Foundation, “a nonprofit organization created by philanthropist Alfred I. duPont in 1936 and devoted to improving the health of children.”

MLA 8 Citation

“Cyberbullying.” KidsHealth. The Nemours Foundation, 2014, kidshealth.org/en/parents/cyberbullying.html.

APA Citation

Cyberbullying. (2014). Retrieved from http://kidshealth.org/en/parents /cyberbullying.html

Cyber bullying article #2: What Is Cyberbullying?

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services provides a concise definition of the term: “Cyberbullying is bullying that takes place using electronic technology.”

It goes on to explain exactly what is meant by “electronic technology,” as well as gives a very good overview of the issue, including ideas for action. Much of the government’s concern is that bullying, in general, often involves illegal or criminal behavior. So definitions of such behavior are very important.

MLA 8 Citation

“What Is Cyberbullying.” StopBullying.gov. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, www.stopbullying.gov/cyberbullying/what-is-it/.

APA Citation

What is cyberbullying. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.stopbullying.gov /cyberbullying/what-is-it/

Cyber bullying article #3: What Is Cyberbullying?

This article, published by the National Crime Prevention Council, defines cyber bullying, discusses the effects of cyber bullying, and offers resources for parents and teens.

MLA 8 Citation

“What Is Cyberbullying?” National Crime Prevention Council, www.ncpc.org/topics/cyberbullying/what-is-cyberbullying.

APA Citation

What is cyberbullying? (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ncpc.org/topics /cyberbullying/what-is-cyberbullying

3 Cyber Bullying Articles on Why People Cyber Bully

The reason it’s so important to understand the causes of cyber bullying in writing your persuasive essay is that you will need to decide whether to recommend treating its causes or its effects.

For instance, do you recommend counseling for potential bullies or for their eventual victims? Do you recommend social sanctions or punishment? The following articles will help you answer these questions.

Cyber bullying article #4: 8 Reasons Why Kids Cyberbully Others

The author, Sherri Gordon, gives a succinct list of reasons that cyber bullying takes place. Most noticeable is that the person who bullies others is trying to fit in.

Ever since our caveman days, bullying has reinforced one’s sense of “belonging” by ganging up on “outsiders.” And “belonging” is something that teenagers, in particular, desperately want.

Gordon also mentions a lack of empathy on the part of many cyber bullies. Empathy is something that, in general, develops relatively late in adolescents.

MLA 8 Citation

Gordon, Sherri. “8 Factors That Motivate Cyberbullies to Lash Out at Others.” Verywell, 30 Dec. 2016, www.verywell.com/reasons-why-kids-cyberbully-others-460553.

APA Citation

Gordon, S. (2016). 8 factors that motivate cyberbullies to lash out at others. Retrieved from https://www.verywell.com/reasons-why-kids-cyberbully-others-460553

Cyber bullying article #5: Why Do People Cyberbully?

DeleteCyberbullying.org is a website that describes itself as “A Stop Online Harassment Project.” It’s devoted to finding both the origins of and the cure for cyber bullying.

In addition to mentioning some of the same causes of the problem as Gordon, above, the website mentions the anonymity of the Internet as a causal factor. Tied in with anonymity is the lack of any threat of retaliation, which encourages many cyber bullies—underlining the fact that bullying is a cowardly act.

MLA 8 Citation

“Why Do People Cyberbully?” DeleteCyberbullying.org, www.deletecyberbullying.org/why-do-people-cyberbully/.

APA Citation

Why do people cyberbully? (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.deletecyberbullying.org/why-do-people-cyberbully/

Cyber bullying article #6: Why Do Kids Cyberbully Each Other?

This brief article examines the reasons kids cyber bully, such as anger, revenge, boredom, or frustration.

The STOP Cyberbullying website also links to a variety of additional articles that provide advice for dealing with bullies and advice on how to take a stand against cyber bullying.

MLA 8 Citation

“STOP Cyberbullying: Why Do Kids Cyberbully Each Other?” StopCyberbulling.org, WiredSafety.org, www.stopcyberbullying.org /why_do_kids_cyberbully_each_other.html.

APA Citation

STOP cyberbullying: Why do kids cyberbully each other? (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.stopcyberbullying.org/why_do_kids_cyberbully_each_other.html

3 Cyber Bullying Articles on Treatments for Cyber Bullying

All of the following articles point out that, when recommending treatment for cyber bullying, it’s once again a matter of definition: what kind of treatment, and for whom?

Should the treatment focus on prevention or on dealing with the damage? In your persuasive essay, you’ll need to decide on your stance on these issues.

Cyber bullying article #7: Cyberbullying “Causes Suicidal Thoughts in Kids More Than Traditional Bullying”

David McNamee, a frequent contributor to Medical News Today, calls attention to one frightening aspect of cyber bullying: its victims are highly prone to having suicidal thoughts.

He quotes a study done in the Netherlands. The authors of the study speculated that the increased power of cyber bullying to make its victims suicidal was due to the widespread nature of the Internet.

Unlike traditional face-to-face bullying, cyber bullying material can be stored on a variety of online media, causing the victim to relive the experience again and again. This suggests that any treatment of cyber bullying should include monitoring the significant risk it creates of suicidal thoughts and actions in victims.

MLA 8 Citation

McNamee, Dave. “Cyberbullying ‘Causes Suicidal Thoughts in Kids More than Traditional Bullying.’” Medical News Today, MediLexicon International, 11 Mar. 2014, www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/273788.php.

APA Citation

McNamee, D. (2014, March 11). Cyberbullying “causes suicidal thoughts in kids more than traditional bullying.” Medical News Today. Retrieved from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/273788.php

Cyber bullying article #8: Bullying and Cyberbullying: History, Statistics, Law, Prevention and Analysis

Bullying has been in existence for many years, and this journal article examines the history of the problem and how bullying expanded to include cyber bullying as technologies changed. It also includes suggestions for preventing cyber bullying.

MLA 8 Citation

Donegan, Richard. “Bullying and Cyberbullying: History, Statistics, Law, Prevention and Analysis.” The Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 33–42. www.elon.edu/docs/e-web/academics/communications/research/vol3no1/ 04doneganejspring12.pdf.

APA Citation

Donegan, R. (2012). Bullying and cyberbullying: History, statistics, law, prevention and analysis. The Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications,3(1), 33-42. Retrieved from https://www.elon.edu/docs/ e-web/academics/communications/research/vol3no1/ 04doneganejspring12.pdf

Cyber bullying article #9: Social Media Cyber Bullying Linked to Teen Depression

This article is published by Scientific American, “the longest continuously published magazine in the U.S.” It highlights the fact that both those who cyberbully and those who are cyberbullied often experience higher rates of depression.

The article reviews several studies and stresses that these studies alone cannot prove that cyber bullying causes depression. It does, however, suggest that teens who suffer from depression are more likely to become victims of bullying than those who are not depressed.

MLA 8 Citation

Pappas, Stephanie. “Social Media Cyber Bullying Linked to Teen Depression.” Scientific American, 23 June 2015, www.scientificamerican.com/article /social-media-cyber-bullying-linked-to-teen-depression/.

APA Citation

Pappas, S. (2015, June 23). Social media cyber bullying linked to teen depression. Scientific American. Retrieved from https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/social-media-cyber-bullying-linked-to-teen-depression/

3 Cyber Bullying Articles on the Prevention of Cyber Bullying

Can we stop cyber bullying from happening in the first place? The following articles are helpful for defining a call to action. What should readers do about cyber bullying? How can they prevent it from happening?

Cyber bullying article #10: Cyberbullying: Intervention and Prevention Strategies

The authors of this article, Ted Feinberg and Nicole Robey, recommend a number of strategies to reduce the incidence and, particularly, the recurrence of cyber bullying.

For victims and parents of victims, the authors recommend recording the offending material, enlisting the help of authorities, contacting the attacker directly, and importantly, having an open environment in the home regarding computer and Internet use.

For educators, the authors recommend that a threat assessment be done and that anti-cyber bullying education be made a regular part of the curriculum.

MLA Citation

Feinberg, Ted, and Nicole Robey. “Cyberbullying: Intervention and Prevention Strategies” (Handout no. S4H15-1). Helping Children at Home and School III – Handouts for Families and Educators, edited by Andrea Canter et al., National Association of School Psychologists. Semantic Scholar, Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence, pdfs.semanticscholar.org/d27d /47c9add136150ec0f96edcf08ade223e3d2b.pdf.

APA Citation

Feinbert, T., & Robey, N. (n.d.). Cyberbullying: Intervention and prevention strategies (Handout no. S4H15-1). In A. Canter, L. Paige, & S. Shaw, Helping Children at Home and School III – Handouts for Families and Educators. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org /d27d/47c9add136150ec0f96edcf08ade223e3d2b.pdf

Cyber bullying article #11: Bullying and Cyberbullying Prevention Strategies and Resources

The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) is a famous and long-established organization that originally combated anti-Semitism. It has since expanded its reach to include opposing all forms of discrimination and defamation.

This website presents a collection of useful articles, many of which focus on preventative actions, such as Bullying Prevention and Intervention Tips for Schools and What Can be Done About Name-Calling and Bullying.

While many of these resources are aimed at preventing “traditional” bullying, the advice can be applied to cyber bullying as well. Below are citations for both the list of sources on the URL as a whole and an example with one of the articles available there.

MLA Citation (URL with list of resources)

“Bullying and Cyberbullying Prevention Strategies and Resources.” Anti-Defamation League, www.adl.org/education-outreach/bullying-cyberbullying/c/strategies-and-resources.html.

APA Citation (URL with list of resources)

Bullying and cyberbullying prevention strategies and resources. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.adl.org/education-outreach/bullying-cyberbullying/c/strategies-and-resources.html

MLA Citation (example PDF resource)

“Bullying Prevention and Intervention Tips for Schools.” Anti-Defamation League, www.adl.org/sites/default/files/documents/assets/pdf/education-outreach/Bullying-Prevention-and-Intervention-Tips-for-Schools-Institutions.pdf.

APA Citation (example PDF resource)

Bullying prevention and intervention tips for schools. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.adl.org/sites/default/files/documents/assets/pdf/education-outreach/Bullying-Prevention-and-Intervention-Tips-for-Schools-Institutions.pdf

Cyber bullying article #12: Cyberbullying: Resources for Intervention and Prevention

Published in the Universal Journal of Education Research, this article discusses cyber bullying and ways to combat it. It also includes an overview of prevention and intervention programs and the role schools play in preventing cyber bullying.

MLA Citation

Notar, Charles E., et al. “Cyberbullying: Resources for Intervention and Prevention.” Universal Journal of Educational Research, vol. 1, no. 3, 2013, pp. 133–45. ERIC Institute of Education Sciences, doi:10.13189/ujer.2013.010301.

APA Citation

Notar, C. E., Padgett, S., & Roden, J. (2013). Cyberbullying: Resources for intervention and prevention. Universal Journal of Educational Research,1(3), 133-145. doi:10.13189/ujer.2013.010301

Putting It All Together

I’ve barely scratched the surface here. My goal was to give you a starting point for your own research. There are about 43 gazillion articles and websites out there on this topic. So I strongly suggest you make your search terms as specific as possible.

Once you dive in, remember that persuasive essays recommend action(s), and that to do so, you need to take into account, as well as point out, three things:

  1. What is the cost—in terms of money, effort, and time?
  2. Is it worth the effort? Will it solve or at least mitigate the problem, to an extent that justifies those costs?
  3. What about opportunity cost—the fact that, whatever we do, we could have been doing something else potentially useful instead (should resources spent combating cyber bullying be used elsewhere)?

If you need more help getting your arms around writing your persuasive essay, I recommend reading How to Create a Persuasive Essay Outline and checking out Persuasive Essay Writing Made Simple (Infographic).

If you need a little more help with finding resources, check out 5 Best Resources to Help with Writing a Research Paper.

Looking at these cyber bullying articles but need to write something other than a persuasive essay? Here are a few examples of other types of papers about the topic:

Looking for even more help? Why not send your paper to a Kibin editor for a little revision expertise?

Good luck!

Psst... 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays.

The College and Career
Library Presents:

Cyber Bullying:
Information and Resources

Cyberbullying Information and Resources for
Research Papers, Reports, Essays, and Speeches

Bullying has been around for ages throughout most countries. It seems like most people have some memory of a bully intimidating or making fun of them. For many, bullying happened at school, but it can happen anytime in one's life. With the advancements in communication technology in the past decade or two, there have been tremendous positive outcomes. However, with this new technology comes serious issues. One of those serious issues is cyberbullying. Bullies can now take their harassment to a whole new level and stir up many more emotions among their victims than ever before. Many bullies have now become cyber bullies.


There are, at least, two schools of thought when it comes to cyber bullying. Some people think that cyber bullying is just a form of harmless schoolyard bullying that most people have to endure as a kind of rite of passage. People feel that you just deal with it and get over it. However, more and more people are coming to the realization that cyber bullying is much more harmful than old schoolyard antics. The nature of new technology, such as the Internet, allow cyber bullies to intimidate their victims on a scale that children, parents, school officials, and government are struggling to understand and solve.


There is some very good information on cyber bullying in the form of books, magazine articles, journal articles, and newspaper articles. Much of this information can be found in a library or on the World Wide Web.


If all you have to do is write an essay, give an informative report, or present a speech on cyber bullying, then you should find it kind of easy. There is enough information, cyber bullying statistics, and opinions on this subject.


If you have to take some stand on this issue in the form of a persuasive/argumentative paper / essay or speech (pros and cons), then you might have an easier time arguing that cyber bullying is a serious offense and should be prosecuted as a crime.


It is possible to argue that cyber bullying is not really all THAT serious, and should not be considered a crime. Educating the bully rather than using the legal system is the way to go to solve cyber bullying. There are First Amendment rights to consider when dealing with the topic of cyber bullying.


Another popular topic to debate is whether cyber bullying is worse than traditional bullying. There is enough information available to support both sides of this debate, too.


Following are resources that can help you find information on cyber bullying. There is a variety of information on what cyber bullying is, statistics on cyber bullying, examples and methods of cyber bullying, cyber bullying laws and legislation, true-life stories, and a profile of cyber bullies.


We feature thesis statements, outlines, and lists of sources for finding information in books, journals, magazines, newspapers, and websites. Please SCROLL DOWN THIS LONG WEB PAGE or use these two links:

 

Cyber Bullying IS a Crime | Cyber Bullying is NOT a Crime


Cyber Bullying IS a Crime and the Legal System Should Treat Cyber Bullying Accordingly

The following is an example of an introductory statement that includes a thesis statement.

Bullying has been around for ages throughout most countries. It seems like most people have some memory of a bully intimidating or making fun of them. For many, bullying happened at school, but it can happen anytime in one's life. Many positive changes have affected our lives thanks to the information and technology explosion. However, there have been some negative consequences of the rapid expansion of the Internet and communication technology. One of those alarming issues is a new form of bullying called cyber bullying. Like bullying, many people feel that cyber bullying is not a big deal. Many feel that it is a normal part of life that people just need to deal with the best that they can. However, cyber bullying is something that should concern everyone. Cyber bullies use ruthless tactics and cyber bullying should be considered a crime because it is a form of harassment that causes victims to suffer feelings of depression, isolation, low self-esteem, humiliation, anxiety, and thoughts of suicide. (We put the thesis statement in bold for instructional purposes to indicate to you what a thesis statement looks like).


An example of a possible outline could look something like this:

I.   INTRODUCTION

II.  DEFINE CYBER BULLYING

           A. Denigration

           B. Flaming

           C. Impersonation

           D. Outing

III.  EFFECTS OF CYBER BULLYING

IV.  PROFILE OF CYBER BULLY

V.   LEGALITIES OF CYBER BULLYING

VI.  CONCLUSION


Here are some aspects of cyber bullying that you may want to consider if you want to argue that cyber bullying is very serious and should be treated by the judicial system as a serious crime:

  • Cyber bullying is very harmful. Depending on how long of paper or speech that you need to give, you can spend quite a bit of time on this part of cyber bullying. To say that cyber bullying creates some stress is a gross understatement. There are plenty of stories/cases where young people have committed suicide because of cyber bullying. Cyber bullying IS a very serious matter.

  • You can spend some time on the different methods that cyber bullies use to humiliate their victims. There are stories/cases that you can write/talk about that include cyber bullying techniques such as flaming, denigration, impersonation, and outing.

  • The Federal Government and individual states have enacted some legislation and they are interested in passing more. You can pick and choose which legislation to cover depending on length of report or speech.

  • There is advice available on how to protect yourself from cyber bullies. There are tips for parents and school officials on what to do to solve cyber bullying. However, some of this advice might counter your argument that cyber bullying should be treated as a crime, so be careful on how much of this advice that you give in your report or speech.

List of Resources

Although text may look differently on different computers and tablets, we have attempted to cite all books and periodical articles according to TheMLA Handbook Eighth Edition, 2016. Some of the following sources can be found online for free, but if you use the online source, you will have to cite the source as an ONLINE source UNLESS your professor allows you to cite the online source as a PRINT source/citation. The final authority on how you cite something in your paper is YOUR TEACHER. Please remember to double-space citation and use "hanging indentation."

Books

Hinduja, Sameer, and Justin W. Patchin. Bullying Beyond the Schoolyard: Preventing andResponding

 

to Cyberbullying. Corwin Press, 2009.

These two authors are well-known for their literature and studies on cyberbullying. This book covers A LOT, including statistics, tools used by bullies, effects of cyberbullying, methods that can be used to deal with cyberbullying, and legal issues. This book, as well as Cyber Bullying: Bullying in the Digital Age, are two excellent books that cover just about everything that you need in order to write a lengthy paper or give a long speech on the topic of cyberbullying.

Kowalski, Robin M., Susan P. Limber, and Patricia W. Agatston. Cyber Bullying: Bullying in the Digital Age.

 

Wiley-Blackwell, 2012.

This is an EXCELLENT book on the subject of cyber bullying. If all you need is one source for information to help you write an informative report/research paper on cyber bullying then this book is all that you may need. Just some of the aspects of cyber bullying covered in this book are: plenty of statistics; general profile of bullies and victims; various methods of harassment; summary of research studies; methods of prevention and solutions for students, parents, educators, and legislators; and laws and policies. There are some true stories of victims spread throughout the book.

Patchin, Justin W., and Sameer Hinduja. Cyberbullying Prevention and Response: Expert

 

Perspectives. Routledge, 2012.

Once again, Patchin and Hinduja team up to provide a comprehensive look at the major issues that teachers, school administrators, counselors, social workers, and parents need to be aware of with respect to cyberbullying identification, prevention, and response.

Bullying Beyond the Schoolyard: Preventing and Responding to Cyberbullying,Cyber Bullying: Bullying in the Digital Age, and Cyberbullying Prevention and Response: Expert Perspectives are VERY helpful books that cover most of the issues associated with cyber bullying. If your local library does not have these books or they cannot interlibrary loan the books, these books are available at Amazon.com.

 

Journal and Magazine Articles

Chisholm, June F. "Review of the Status of Cyberbullying and Cyberbullying Prevention."

 

Journal of Information Systems Education, vol. 25, no.1, 2014, pp. 77-87.


This is a journal article that is a type of literature review. Different search studies with their results are listed. “This discussion reviews the definition and characteristics of cyberbullying, its prevalence, populations affected, gender differences, theoretical perspectives and issues of intervention andprevention.” A LOT of information covering a variety of aspects of cyberbullying is covered in this journal article. Interventions vary from legislation to educational programs.This journal article is available for FREE on the Web at: http://jise.org/Volume25/25-1/pdf/Vol25-1pg77.pdf

 

 

Conn, Kathleen. "Cyberbullying and other Student Technology Misuses in K-12 American Schools:

 

the Legal Landmines."  Widener Law Review, vol. 16, no.1, 2010, pp. 89-100.

This ten-page scholarly journal article covers the different perspectives on the legal issues involving cyberbullying. Enacting legislation on cyberbullying may not be easy and this article does a good job of covering the legal concerns of many people. This article can be found in print form or online at http://widenerlawreview.org/files/2011/02/03-CONN_final.pdf.

 

Feinberg, Ted, and Nicole Robey. "Cyberbullying." The Education Digest, vol.74, no. 7, 2009, pp. 26-31.

In this March 2009 journal article, Feinberg and Robey defines cyberbullying and the consequences of cyberbullying. Schools struggle with what to do about cyberbullying as this can "undermine school climate, interfere with victims' school functioning, and put some students at risk for serious mental health and safety problems." A number of suggestions are given on what schools can do to help teach students and prevent cyberbullying.

Holladay, Jennifer. "Cyberbullying." The Education Digest, vol. 6, no. 5, 2011, pp. 4-9.

 

Holladay, Jennifer. "Cyberbullying." Teaching Tolerance, vol. 38, 2010, pp. 42-45.

 

www.tolerance.org/magazine/number-38-fall-2010/feature/cyberbullying. Accessed 7 Mar. 2013.

We provide two separate citations because this article appeared in the magazine publication titled Teaching Tolerance and then the article appeared in condensed form as a reprint in the well-respected The Education Digest. The Teaching Tolerance article can be found online, FOR FREE at http://www.tolerance.org/magazine/number-38-fall-2010/feature/cyberbullying

Jennifer covers a variety of topics about cyberbullying. She writes about the case (true story) of cyberbullying used on Phoebe Prince. The legalities of freedom of speech balanced against harassment/harm create problems for many people in authority on what to do in order to handle cyberbullying. A 2009 study from Common Sense Media found that parents nationally underestimate children's use of social networking sites and often are unaware of how they are used. Thirty-seven percent of students, for example, admitted they'd made fun of a peer online, but only 18% of parents thought their child would do so." Although, the First Amendment is seen as a big concern when legislators think about enacting laws against cyberbullying, this article provides this interesting quote "We have the Second Amendment right to possess weapons, but that doesn't mean we allow children to bring guns to school." Basically, there are limits to what we can do. Examples and suggestions are given on what some organizations are doing to prevent and solve cyberbullying.

 

 

Kowalski, Robin M. "Cyber Bullying: Recognizing and Treating Victim and Aggressor."

 

Psychiatric Times, vol. 25, no.11, 2008, pp. 45-47.


“Researchers and practitioners are still in the initial stages of charting the path to understand and treat victims, perpetrators, and bystanders of cyber bullying. Although research on traditional bullying provides a useful starting point, it is important to recognize that cyber bullying is not the same thing as traditional bullying and that the individuals involved in the 2 types of bullying are not necessarily the same group of people. The effects of cyber bullying are serious and, in some instances, life-threatening. Given the frequency with which youths are engaged with technology, psychologists and psychiatrists need to be alert to the possibility that their patients may be targets, perpetrators, or bystanders of cyber bullying.”

 

Meredith, Jessica P. "Combating Cyberbullying: Emphasizing Education over Criminalization."

 

Federal Communications Law Journal, vol. 63, no.1, 2010, pp. 311-40.

This scholarly journal article (over 30 pages) in the December 2010 issue of Federal Communications Law Journal offers A LOT of information on cyberbullying law and cyberbullying events/cases that helped bring attention to cyberbullying. This article can provide information on both sides of the criminalization argument. However, the last few pages emphasizes education over criminalization as prevention/punishment for cyberbullying. If you need to write a lot of pages for a paper, then this article can supply plenty of information and ideas to help you fill up the essay.

 

Neiman, Samantha, Brandon Robers, and Simone Robers. "Bullying: A State of Affairs."

 

Journal of Law & Education, vol. 41, no. 4, 2012, pp. 603-648.


This October 2012 scholarly journal article is an EXCELLENT 46-page article. If you need to add more information to your paper then this would be a great place to look. “This article focuses on bullying in schools in the U.S.  Topics include the rate of suicide among students that have been bullied, the use of Internet in bullying, and the effectiveness of state statutory bullying laws. Information is provided on the prevention of bullying through intervention and educational programs, why bullying varies between states in the U.S., and the definition of bullying behavior. It is noted that cyber-bullying remains one of the most common forms of bullying in the U.S. in 2012.” If your library does not have this article, then please ask them if they can interlibrary loan the article for you, for free. A majority of libraries within the United States have some form of free interlibrary loan service.

 

Rodgers, Audrey. "Death by Bullying: A Comparative Culpability Proposal." 

 

Pace Law Review, vol. 35, no.1, 2014, pp. 343-366.

This is a scholarly journal article providing information about the legalities of bullying.  CASE STUDIES are presented that show show both sides of the legal issues. Some bullies were not punished at all OR very little. However, criminal causation rules may be the answer.  “This Fall 2014 Pace Law Review journal article provides information on the seriousness of bullying and the results that bullying / cyberbullying can cause. This conclusion states that “for egregious bullying cases, prosecutors can and should consider possible homicide charges.” This scholarly journal article can be found for free on the Internet at: http://digitalcommons.pace.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1885&context=plr

 

 

Wang, Jing, Ronald J. Iannotti, and Tonja R. Nansel. "School Bullying Among Adolescents in the

 

 United States: Physical, Verbal, Relational, and Cyber." Journal of Adolescent Health, vol. 45, no. 4

 

  2009, pp. 368-75.

This October 2009 scholarly research study examined four forms of school bullying behaviors among U.S. adolescents and their association with socio-demographic characteristics, parental support, and friends. This IS a scholarly research article, so there are plenty of statistics. Here is an excerpt from part of the conclusion: "Findings indicate high prevalence rates of having bullied others or having been bullied at school for at least once in the last 2 months: 20.8% physically, 53.6% verbally, 51.4% socially, or 13.6% electronically. After categorizing respondents into four categories (bullies, victims, bully-victims, and non-involved), we found that adolescents with higher parental support reported less involvement in all four forms of bullying while having more friends was associated with more bullying (bullies) and less victimization (victims or bullying-victims) in physical, verbal, and relational forms, but this was not the case for cyber bullying. Socio-demographic differences in bullying varied across the four different forms." This article can be found on line, for FREE, at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2751860/?tool=pubmed.

 

Washington, Edwina Thomas. "An Overview of Cyberbullying in Higher

 

 Education." Adult Learning, vol. 26, no.1, 2015, pp. 21-27.


“College students who have been cyberbullied have committed suicide, dropped out, or endured torment while in school. This article provides an overview of cyberbullying among adults in higher education and an examination of the current status of state and federal laws that may serve as deterrents to cyberbullying.” A section on “Cyberbullying and the Law” is presented. “As the problem of cyberbullying grows at higher education institutions, administrators, researchers, faculty, and law enforcement should work with legislators to provide research and data to support the development of training, laws, and policies that prohibit cyberbullying.”

 

 

Whelan, Debra Lau. "The Bully in the Backpack." School Library Journal, vol. 57, no. 10, 2011, pp. 29-36.

School Library Journal is a well-respected educational magazine. A variety of topics about cyberbullying are covered in this October 2011 issue. Many people have questions on whether traditional bullying is worse than cyberbullying. There are a number of aspects of cyberbullying covered in this issue that helps show that cyberbullying may be worse than traditional bullying. For one reason, “while no one can deny the emotional and physical scars schoolyard bullies leave behind, many agree the constant pounding that takes place in cyberspace can be even more damaging to children, especially the collective bullying experience that digital mobs often create on social networking sites.” Another paragraph within this article states that “a study by the National Institutes of Health says that compared to traditional bullying victims, students targeted by cyberbullies (who may not identify themselves) feel more hopeless and depressed, as well as isolated, dehumanized, and helpless at the time of an attack.”  Some information is provided about a number of specific victims of cyberbullying. A considerable amount of information is provided about possible solutions. This EXCELLENT article can be found for free, ONLINE at: http://www.slj.com/2011/09/students/the-bully-in-the-backpack-theres-no-limit-to-the-cruelty-of-online-bullies-heres-what-you-can-do/

Whelan, Debra Lau. "The Bully in the Backpack." School Library Journal, vol. 57, no.10, 2011, pp. 29-36.

 

www.slj.com/2011/09/students/the-bully-in-the-backpack-theres-no-limit-to-the-cruelty-of-online-bullies-heres-what-you-can-do/. Accessed 10 Aug. 2016.

 

Online Resources/ Websites

 

De Nies, Yunji, Susan Donaldson James, and Sarah Netter. "Mean Girls: Cyberbullying Blamed for Teen

 

 Suicides." Abcnews.go.com. American Broadcasting Company, 28 Jan. 2010, abcnews.go.com/GMA/Parenting/girls-teen-suicide-calls-attention-cyberbullying/story?id=9685026.

This article mentions three true stories (cases) of children/adolescents who committed suicide as a result of cyberbullying, indicating how harmful cyberbullying can be. The article can be found at http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/Parenting/girls-teen-suicide-calls-attention-cyberbullying/story?id=9685026

 

Amanda Lenhart has a couple of online sources about cyberbullying:

Lenhart, Amanda. "Cyberbullying and Online Teens." Pew Internet & American Life Project, 27 June 2007,

 

www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2007/Cyberbullying.aspx.

This 2007 research study gives plenty of statistics about online teenagers and cyberbullying. Some additional information is provided about why teens bully online. http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2007/Cyberbullying.aspx

 

Lenhart, Amanda. "Cyberbullying: What the Research is Telling Us." Pew Internet & American Life

 

Project, 2010. Slideshare. www.slideshare.net/PewInternet/cyberbullying-2010-what-the-research-tells-us-4009451.

Amanda Lenhart presents a slide show (like a Power Point presentation) on the Web. The slides give a lot of helpful Internet usage statistics on children/teenagers and statistics about cyber bullying.
http://www.slideshare.net/PewInternet/cyberbullying-2010-what-the-research-tells-us-4009451

Cyberbullying Research Center at http://www.cyberbullying.us/will provide a variety of articles and resources covering identification; prevention; effects of cyberbullying such as low self-esteem, humiliation, suicide; legislation; social networks; and statistics.



Education.com
at http://www.education.com/topic/school-bullying-teasing has A LOT of information about cyber bullying. We mean A LOT.

 

The CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) published, in 2008, Electronic Media and Youth Violence: A CDC Issue Brief for Educators and Caregivers that focuses on the phenomena of electronic aggression (cyber bullying). Electronic aggression is defined as "any kind of harassment or bullying that occurs through email, chat rooms, instant messaging, websites, blogs, or text messaging." The brief summarizes what is known about young people and electronic aggression, provides strategies for addressing the issue with young people, and discusses the implications for school staff, education policy makers, and parents and caregivers. http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/EA-brief-a.pdf

 

The Journal of Adolescent Health has a number of scholarly journal articles in its 2007 supplement available online, FOR FREE. There are some very good, credible cyberbullying articles (PDF format) located at http://jahonline.org/issue/S1054-139X(07)X0249-0

 

WHOA (Working to Halt Online Abuse) "is a volunteer organization founded in 1997 to fight online harassment through education of the general public, education of law enforcement personnel, and empowerment of victims." Although WHOA covers a variety of online abuse, there is some helpful information on the website about cyber bullying including some statistics on cyber bullying at http://www.haltabuse.org/resources/stats/index.shtml.


 

Cyber Bullying: Education Rather than Criminalization is the Answer to Cyber Bullying.

Following is an example of an introductory paragraph, including the thesis statement, for this perspective on cyber bullying:

Some people feel that cyber bullying is no big deal. Cyber bullying is not all that different than the bullying that most people are subjected to in the schoolyard which is kind of a childhood rite of passage. However, there are many people who know that cyber bullying is a serious matter, but they believe that education rather than the judicial system is the proper way to solve the problem. Cyber bullying is a serious matter, but it should not be considered a crime. Educating those involved by teaching the bully the effects of his/her actions, showing teachers how to handle bullies, and teaching parents and children what to do about cyber bullying is the correct way to solve cyber bullying. (We put the thesis statement in bold for instructional purposes to give you an idea of what a thesis statement looks like).

Here is a possible outline for a research paper that is stressing that cyber bullying IS a problem, but it is NOT a judicial problem. There are alternatives to solving cyber bullying than prosecuting the perpetrator:

I.    INTRODUCTION

II.   DEFINE CYBER BULLYING

             A. Denigration

             B. Flaming

             C. Impersonation

             D. Outing

III.   EFFECTS OF CYBER BULLYING

IV.   LEGALITIES OF CYBER BULLYING

V.    WHAT PARENTS CAN DO

VI.   WHAT THE SCHOOLS CAN DO

VII.  WHAT GOVERNMENTS CAN DO

VIII. CONCLUSION


Here are some aspects of cyber bullying that you may want to consider if you want to argue that cyber bullying should not be a crime. Education rather than criminalization is the way to go:

  • Cyber bullying is no different than the traditional bullying that most people were subjected to as a child in the schoolyard. Almost no one would think of prosecuting childhood bullies, so no one should think about prosecuting childhood cyber bullies.

  • You can write pages on the different methods that bullies can use to bully fellow children. You can mention the use of the Internet and cell phones to apply bullying techniques such as flaming, denigration, impersonation, and outing, to name just a few.

  • It is possible to admit that cyber bullying is a problem by writing about the variety of emotions and students (actual stories/cases) who are victims of cyber bullies. However, when mentioning the harm that cyber bullies do, keep in mind that education is the preferred plan of "treatment" for cyber bullies. You may need to be careful because it is possible to mention enough facts that would make people think that maybe the judicial system IS the way to go for punishing cyber bullies.

  • The legalities can be confusing, but this is one area where you can fill up a number of pages for a research paper. Basically, prosecuting cyber bullies can be seen as a violation of the First Amendment's freedom of speech. There are concerns about a person's individual rights. However, a number of states have enacted bullying and cyber bullying legislation. Information about a variety of cyber bullying laws are available.

  • There are a number of things that teenagers, parents, and schools can do to help fight cyber bullying. Case law such as Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District and the case of Bethel v. Fraser indicate that schools can discipline children if children's speech/actions constitute a threat, is lewd and vulgar, or disrupts school activities and interferes with the rights of other students. Schools have the right to "teach" what is right and wrong when it comes to cyber bullying and respect the rights of their fellow human beings.

List of Resources

Although text may look differently on different computers and tablets, we have attempted to cite all books and periodical articles according to TheMLA Handbook Eighth Edition, 2016. Some of the following sources can be found online for free, but if you use the online source, you will have to cite the source as an ONLINE source UNLESS your professor allows you to cite the online source as a PRINT source/citation. The final authority on how you cite something in your paper is YOUR TEACHER. Please remember to double-space citation and use "hanging indentation."

Books

Hinduja, Sameer, and Justin W. Patchin. Bullying Beyond the Schoolyard: Preventing andResponding

 

to Cyberbullying. Corwin Press, 2009.

These two authors are well-known for their literature and studies on cyberbullying. This book covers A LOT, including statistics, tools used by bullies, effects of cyberbullying, methods that can be used to deal with cyberbullying, and legal issues. This book, as well as Cyber Bullying: Bullying in the Digital Age, are two excellent books that cover just about everything you need in order to write a lengthy paper or give a long speech on the topic of cyberbullying.

Kowalski, Robin M., Susan P. Limber, and Patricia W. Agatston. Cyber Bullying: Bullying in the Digital Age.

 

Wiley-Blackwell, 2012.

This is an EXCELLENT book on the subject of cyber bullying. If all you need is one source for information to help you write an informative report/research paper on cyber bullying then this book might be all that you need. Just some of the aspects of cyber bullying covered in this book are: plenty of statistics; general profile of bullies and victims; various methods of harassment; summary of research studies, methods of prevention and solutions for students, parents, educators, and legislators; and laws and policies. There are some true stories of victims of cyber bullying spread throughout the book.

Bullying Beyond the Schoolyard: Preventing and Responding to Cyberbullying and Cyber Bullying: Bullying in the Digital Age are two very helpful books that cover most of the issues associated with cyber bullying. If your local library does not have these books or they cannot interlibrary loan the books, these books are available at Amazon.com.

 

Journal and Magazine Articles

Chisholm, June F. "Review of the Status of Cyberbullying and Cyberbullying Prevention."

 

Journal of Information Systems Education, vol. 25, no.1, 2014, pp. 77-87.

This is a journal article that is a type of literature review. Different search studies with their results are listed. “This discussion reviews the definition and characteristics of cyberbullying, its prevalence, populations affected, gender differences, theoretical perspectives and issues of intervention andprevention.” A LOT of information covering a variety of aspects of cyberbullying is covered in this journal article. Interventions vary from legislation to educational programs.This journal article is available for FREE on the Web at: http://jise.org/Volume25/25-1/pdf/Vol25-1pg77.pdf

 

 

Feinberg, Ted and Nicole Robey. "Cyberbullying." The Education Digest, vol. 74, no. 7, 2009, pp. 26-31.

In this March 2009 journal article, Feinberg and Robey defines cyberbullying and the consequences of cyberbullying. Schools struggle with what to do about cyberbullying as this can "undermine school climate, interfere with victims' school functioning, and put some students at risk for serious mental health and safety problems." The last few pages of this article cover what schools, students, and parents can do about cyberbullying.

 

Foody, Mairead, Muthana Samara, and Per Carlbring. "A Review of Cyberbullying

 

.and Suggestions for Online Psychology Therapy." Internet Interventions,

 

vol. 2, 2015, pp. 235-242.

Another literature review is provided in this journal, but there is considerable information presented to encourage the use of online psychological therapy as an intervention. This journal article can be located for free online at: http://www.invent-journal.com/article/S2214-7829(15)00025-1/pdfORhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/277338932_A_review_of_cyberbullying_and_suggestions_for_online_psychological_therapy

 

Holladay, Jennifer. "Cyberbullying." The Education Digest, vol. 76, no. 5, 2011, pp. 4-9.

 

Holladay, Jennifer. "Cyberbullying." Teaching Tolerance, vol. 38, 2010, pp. 42-45,

 

www.tolerance.org/magazine/number-38-fall-2010/feature/cyberbullying. Accessed 7 Mar. 2013.

We provide two separate citations because this article appeared in the magazine publication titled Teaching Tolerance and then the article appeared in condensed form as a reprint in the well-respected The Education Digest. The Teaching Tolerance article can be found online, FOR FREE at http://www.tolerance.org/magazine/number-38-fall-2010/feature/cyberbullying

Jennifer covers a variety of topics about cyberbullying. She writes about the case (true story) of cyberbullying used on Phoebe Prince. The legalities of freedom of speech balanced against harassment/harm create problems for many people in authority on what to do in order to handle cyberbullying. A 2009 study from Common Sense Media found that parents nationally underestimate children's use of social networking sites and often are unaware of how they are used. Thirty-seven percent of students, for example, admitted they'd made fun of a peer online, but only 18% of parents thought their child would do so." Although, the First Amendment is seen as a big concern when legislators think about enacting laws against cyberbullying, this article provides this interesting quote "We have the Second Amendment right to possess weapons, but that doesn't mean we allow children to bring guns to school." Basically, there are limits to what we can do. Examples and suggestions are given on what some organizations are doing to prevent and solve cyberbullying. There is enough information in this article to help support that parents and schools need to be taught how to deal with cyber bullies. Education is the answer. One technique is the "Method of Shared Concern, which involves all parties - the bullies, the victim, and the bystanders -- in examining and addressing conflicts." Examples and suggestions are given on what some organizations and school districts are doing to prevent and solve cyberbullying.

Meredith, Jessica P. "Combating Cyberbullying: Emphasizing Education over Criminalization."

 

Federal Communications Law Journal, vol. 63, no.1, 2010, pp. 311-40.

This scholarly journal article (over 30 pages) in the December 2010 issue of Federal Communications Law Journal offers A LOT of information on cyberbullying law and cyberbullying events/cases that helped bring attention to cyberbullying. This article can provide information on both sides of the criminalization argument. This is an excellent article for a couple of reasons. Many teachers LOVE students to use and cite scholarly journal articles like this one. Another reason that this article is very good is that the last few pages of information support the use of "prevention through education." Overall, this article gives plenty of information that helps emphasize education over criminalization as a prevention/punishment for cyberbullying. If you need to write a lot of pages for your paper, then this article can supply plenty of information and ideas to help you fill up the research paper.

 

Neiman, Samantha, Brandon Robers, and Simone Robers. "Bullying: A State of Affairs."

 

Journal of Law & Education, vol. 41, no. 4, 2012, pp. 603-648.


This October 2012 scholarly journal article is an EXCELLENT 46-page article. If you need to add more information to your paper then this would be a great place to look. “This article focuses on bullying in schools in the U.S.  Topics include the rate of suicide among students that have been bullied, the use of Internet in bullying, and the effectiveness of state statutory bullying laws. Information is provided on the prevention of bullying through intervention and educational programs, why bullying varies between states in the U.S., and the definition of bullying behavior. It is noted that cyber-bullying remains one of the most common forms of bullying in the U.S. in 2012.” If your library does not have this article, then please ask them if they can interlibrary loan the article for you, for free. A majority of libraries within the United States have some form of free interlibrary loan service.

 

Notar, Charles E., Sharon Padgett, and Jessica Roden. "Cyberbullying: A Review of

 

of the Literature." Universal Journal of Educational Research, vol. 1, no.1, 2013,

Another literature review is provided explaining cyberbullying, reasons for cyberbullying, victims, gender differences, and interventions. A short description of legalities is given, but this article has a feel that “While it is tempting to think that tighter regulation and stricter sanctions will have an impact on rates of cyberbullying, it may be more productive to work holistically with the relationships in the peer group and at school in order to develop heightened awareness of the consequences of cyberbullying as well as empathy towards those who are badly affected.” This journal article can be found online for free at: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1053975.pdf

 

Studer, Jeannine R., and Blair S. Mynatt. "Bullying Prevention in Middle Schools:

 

A Collaborative Approach." Middle School Journal, vol. 46, no. 3, 2015, pp. 25-32.

“The article discusses the collaborative and proactive interventions and policies to stop bullying of students in middle schools in the U.S. as of January 2015. Based on data from the U.S. Department of Education and Justice, 37% of students claimed that they are victims of bullying. Also cited are the types of bullying, including physical, verbal and cyber bullying, as well as the relationship of bullying with serious mental health issues like suicide and homicide.”

 

Washington, Edwina Thomas. "An Overview of Cyberbullying in Higher

 

 Education." Adult Learning, vol. 26, no.1, 2015, pp. 21-27.


“College students who have been cyberbullied have committed suicide, dropped out, or endured torment while in school. This article provides an overview of cyberbullying among adults in higher education and an examination of the current status of state and federal laws that may serve as deterrents to cyberbullying.” A section on “Cyberbullying and the Law” is presented. “As the problem of cyberbullying grows at higher education institutions, administrators, researchers, faculty, and law enforcement should work with legislators to provide research and data to support the development of training, laws, and policies that prohibit cyberbullying.”

Whelan, Debra Lau. "The Bully in the Backpack." School Library Journal, vol. 57, no.10, 2011, pp. 29-36.

School Library Journal is a well-respected educational magazine. A variety of topics about cyberbullying are covered in this October 2011 issue. Many people have questions on whether traditional bullying is worse than cyberbullying. There are a number of aspects of cyberbullying covered in this issue that helps show that cyberbullying may be worse than traditional bullying. For one reason, “while no one can deny the emotional and physical scars schoolyard bullies leave behind, many agree the constant pounding that takes place in cyberspace can be even more damaging to children, especially the collective bullying experience that digital mobs often create on social networking sites.” Another paragraph within this article states that “a study by the National Institutes of Health says that compared to traditional bullying victims, students targeted by cyberbullies (who may not identify themselves) feel more hopeless and depressed, as well as isolated, dehumanized, and helpless at the time of an attack.”  Some information is provided about a number of specific victims of cyberbullying. A considerable amount of information is provided about possible solutions. This EXCELLENT article can be found for free, ONLINE at: http://www.slj.com/2011/09/students/the-bully-in-the-backpack-theres-no-limit-to-the-cruelty-of-online-bullies-heres-what-you-can-do/

Whelan, Debra Lau. "The Bully in the Backpack." School Library Journal, vol. 57, no.10, 2011, pp. 29-36,

 

www.slj.com/2011/09/students/the-bully-in-the-backpack-theres-no-limit-to-the-cruelty-of-online-bullies-heres-what-you-can-do/. Accessed 10 Aug. 2016.

 

 

Woda, Tim. "Cyberbullying: Children as Victims and Predators." USA Today

 

  Magazine, vol. 143, no. 2836, 2015, pp. 23-32.

The January 2015 issue of USA Today Magazine presents two pages that explore how cyberbullying and cyberstalking is affecting children in the U.S. and suggests steps to be taken by parents to determine how to address the issue. Topics covered include the statistics from a 2013 Pew Research Center study that show the prevalence cyberbullying, the importance of open communication between parents and their children and the warning signs that may be exhibited by a child.

 

Online Resources/Websites

Cyberbullying Research Center at http://www.cyberbullying.us/ will provide a variety of articles and resources covering identification; prevention; effects of cyberbullying such as low self-esteem, humiliation, suicide; legislation; social networks; and statistics.


Education.com
at http://www.education.com/topic/school-bullying-teasing/ has A LOT of information about cyber bullying. We mean A LOT.


The CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) published in 2008 the Electronic Media and Youth Violence: A CDC Issue Brief for Educators and Caregivers that focuses on the phenomena of electronic aggression (cyber bullying). Electronic aggression is defined as "any kind of harassment or bullying that occurs through email, chat rooms, instant messaging, websites, blogs, or text messaging." The brief summarizes what is known about young people and electronic aggression, provides strategies for addressing the issue with young people, and discusses the implications for school staff, education policy makers, and parents and caregivers. http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/EA-brief-a.pdf

 

The Journal of Adolescent Health has a number of scholarly journal articles in its 2007 supplement available online, FOR FREE. There are some very good, credible cyber bullying articles (PDF format) at http://jahonline.org/issue/S1054-139X(07)X0249-0


WHOA (Working to Halt Online Abuse) "is a volunteer organization founded in 1997 to fight online harassment through education of the general public, education of law enforcement personnel, and empowerment of victims." Although WHOA covers a variety of online abuse, there is some helpful information on the website about cyber bullying including some statistics on cyber bullying at http://www.haltabuse.org/resources/stats/index.shtml.


How to Cite this Web Page According to The MLA Handbook Eighth Edition 2016

"Cyber Bullying: Information and Resources." The College and Career Library. 

 

20 Nov. 2016. www.booksinformationandmore.com, Date that you accessed the web page such as 27 Nov. 2016

Double-space the lines. Use hanging indentation with the second line (if needed) and is indented about 7 to 10 spaces.  The title of the web page is "Cyber Bullying: Information and Resources".  There is no official author so place the title first and in quotes as seen above. The official website is called The College and Career Library and is placed in ITALICS.   6 August 2011 is when the web page was created. However, the website was UPDATED November 20, 2016. After the date comes the URL and the date that you acessed the web page such as 27 Nov. 2016.

"Cyber Bullying: Information and Resources." The College and Career Library, 

 

20 Nov. 2016. www.booksinformationandmore.com. Accessed 27 Nov. 2016.


This web page was created August 6, 2011 and updated November 20, 2016.

 

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