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Mobile And Wireless Technology Assignment Christmas

Assignment: Survey of a Wireless Networking Topic

18-759 Wireless Networking, Spring 2009

For this assignment, you must prepare a survey of particular topic in the area of wireless networking.A list of possible topics is given below. For each topic we have identified a set of initial papers that can be used to explore the topic.This project will be done in teams of 2-3 students (3 students is preferred).

What is a survey?

The goal of a survey is to give a broad, structured overview of a specific area.Here are two scenarios in which you may have to prepare a survey after you graduate:

  • You are working for a company that is exploring a new wireless technology or market, so employees and management are very not very familiar with this new area.You could be asked to prepare a 30 minute presentation to introduce to area, highlighting different approaches, challenges, opportunities, and risks.
  • You decided to go to graduate school and you are writing your first paper on a research project you just finished. You need to write a short related work section that includes a survey of existing work in the areas relevant to your research.

A survey is different from a set of paper summaries. The survey should focus on presenting the “big picture” using the papers as examples. For each topic, we have identified about three papers to get you started, but we generally expect that you will have to consult additional materials.Examples may be papers cited in the original papers, material found on the web, or results from online libraries, like IEEE Explorer, or the ACM portal.

Besides giving you experience in preparing a survey, this assignment should also help you sharpen your critical thinking skills.You should not blindly accept all statements you read (including in the papers cited below) simply because they appear in print in a refereed publication. While the material will generally be technically correct, parts of the papers may be biased or may ignore relevant related work (typically by accident), or the claims may overstate the results that are presented.These problems most often show up in the evaluation section of the papers.The evaluation is sometimes flawed (e.g. uses inaccurate simulators, ignores certain sources of overhead, or presents graphs in misleading ways) or may be very limited in scope (e.g. collects results on one testbed that may not be typical, but then makes very broad claims).Your assessment of the accuracy of the results should be reflected in the survey, i.e. the survey must present your perspective on the state of the art in the area.

You can consult pretty much any material as long as you cite the source.However, you cannot copy text from other papers or the web, since that is plagiarism.The only exception is that you can quote short excerpts or figures from other material, assuming you make it clear that it is a quote and you cite the source.

Deliverables

You specifically have two deliverables for this assignment:

  • You should prepare a 20 minute presentation.We will allocate 30 minute slots after the mid-term break, leaving time for questions after each presentation.
  • You should present a written version of your survey.The length should be limited to 800 words (about 2 pages), not including references.

The first step is to form teams and propose a set of topics.Each team should propose three rank-ordered topics.The instructors will then assign topics to teams, considering the relevance of topics, their breadth and diversity.One of the three topics you list can be self defined, i.e. you can pick a topic that is not on the list.For self-defined topics, you must provide the initial set of papers that you propose to use as the starting point for the core.

Please e-mail your team information and preferred topics to both instructor using the Subject “team information 18-759 surveys” by Monday Feb 16.You should similarly e-mail your rank-ordered list of preferred topics by Friday Feb 20.

Milestones

Milestone

Comment

Monday Feb 16

Submit team information

3 students per team – 2 if needed

Friday Feb 20

List of proposed topics due

Wednesday Feb 25

Instructors announce topics

March – April

In class presentations

10 days before your presentation

Submit draft slides for feedback from instructors

Earlier is always better

Wednesday April 29

Survey documents due

Topics

We list the topics we have identified with an initial set of papers for each topic.Note that for some of the papers, you need a CMU IP address to access the paper, i.e. you will need to use a tunnel when you are off campus.

0. Ad hoc networking (TAs)

1. Mesh networking

·               Trading Structure for Randomness in Wireless Opportunistic Routing, ACM Sigcomm 2007·               ✓ExOR: Opportunistic Multi-Hop Routing for WirelessNetworks, ACM Sigcomm 2005 ·                Simple Opportunistic Routing Protocol forWireless Mesh Networks, IEEE WiMesh 2006

2. Network coding

·               ZigZag Decoding: Combating Hidden Terminals in Wireless Networks, ACM Sigcomm 2008·               Symbol-level Network Coding for Wireless Mesh Networks, ACM Sigcomm 2008·               ✓Beyond the Bits: Cooperative Packet Recovery Using PHY Information, Mobicom 2007·               Improving Loss Resilience with Multi-Radio Diversity in Wireless Networks, ACM Mobicom 20053. WiFi on the move·               Understanding WiFi-based Connectivity From Moving Vehicles, IMC, October 2007·               Cabernet: Vehicular Content Delivery Using WiFi, Mobicom 2008·               ✓Interactive WiFi Connectivity for Moving Vehicles , ACM Sigcomm 20084. 802.11 rate adaptation·               ✓Efficient channel-aware Rate Adaptation in Dynamic Environments, ACM Mobisys 2008·               CARA: Collision-Aware Rate Adaptation for IEEE 802.11 WLANs. IEEE INFOCOM 2006·               Robust rate adaptation for 802.11 wireless networks, ACM Mobicom 20065. Measurements of wireless networks·               ✓A Measurement Study of a Commercial-grade Urban WiFi Mesh, IMC 2008·               Analysis of a mixed-use urban wifi network: when metropolitan becomes neapolitan, IMC 2008·               Experimental Characterization of Home Wireless Networks and Design Implications, In IEEE Infocom 20066. TCP over wireless·               Horizon: Balancing TCP over Multiple Paths in Wireless Mesh Network, Mobicom 2008·               ✓A Comparison of Mechanisms for Improving TCP Performance overWireless Links, ACM Sigcomm 1996

7. Disruption Tolerant Networking – DTN·               ✓A delay-tolerant network architecture for challenged internets, ACM Sigcomm 2003·               A Message Ferrying Approach for Data Delivery in Sparse Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, ACM Mobicom 2004·               Low-Cost Communication for Rural Internet Kiosks Using Mechanical Backhaul, MobiCom 2006.·               DTN Routing as a Resource Allocation Problem, ACM SIGCOMM 20078. WiFi network design and planning, and self-tuning MAC·         Optimal Design of High Density 802.11 WLANs, CoNEXT 2006·         MDG: Measurement-Driven Guidelines for 802.11 WLAN Design, In ACM Mobicom 2007·         ✓Assessment of Urban-Scale Wireless Networks with a Small Number of Measurements, Mobicom 2008

9. Hidden and Exposed Terminals, transmit power control

Topic dropped.

10. Narrowband/wideband/channel width·               ✓A Case for Adapting Channel Width in Wireless Networks, ACM Sigcomm 2008·               Learning to Share: Narrowband-Friendly Wideband Wireless Networks, ACM Sigcomm 2008

11. Vehicular networks

12. Scheduling and QoS

Other candidates:

  • David Eckhardt and Peter Steenkiste Effort Limited Fair (ELF) Scheduling for Wireless Networks, Infocom'00, Tel Aviv, March 2000, pages 1097-1106.
  • A Self-Coordinating Approach to Distributed Fair Queueing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, HaiyunLuo, Paul Medvedev, Jerry Cheng, Songwu Lu, IEEE INFOCOM 2001, Anchorage, Alaska
  • Y. Xiao, H. Li, and S. Choi, “Protection and Guarantee for Voice and Video Traffic in IEEE 802.11e Wireless LANs,” Proc. of IEEE INFOCOM 2004

13. Dynamic spectrum access

14. Opportunistic Communication

15. Mixed multi-hop/infrastructure networks (low priority topic)

·       UCAN: A Unified Cellular and Ad-Hoc Network Architecture, HaiyunLuo, RamachandranRamjee, PrasunSinha, Li Li, Songwu Lu, ACM MOBICOM 2003, San Diego, California

  • The Pulse Protocol: Energy Efficient Infrastructure Access, Awerbuch, Holmer, Rubens, The 23rd Conference of the IEEE Communications Society (IEEE Infocom 2004)
  • The Case for a Multi-hop Wireless Local Area Network," Seungjoon Lee, SumanBanerjee, Bobby Bhattacharjee, Infocom 2004, March 2004, Hong Kong, China.

 

16. Wireless Simulation and Emulation

  • On the accuracy of manet simulators. David Cavin, YoavSasson, and AndréSchiper, Workshop on Principles of Mobile Computing (POMC'02), pages 38-43. ACM, October 2002.
  • ✓Experimental evaluation of wireless simulation assumptions.David Kotz and Calvin Newport and Robert S. Gray and Jason Liu and Yougu Yuan and Chip Elliott. Technical Report TR2004-507, Dept. of Computer Science, Dartmouth College, June, 2004.
  • WhyNet description (focus on hybrid testbed methodology), available at http://chenyen.cs.ucla.edu/projects/whynet/(there are better Whynet papers now)
  • Repeatable and Realistic Wireless Experimentation through Physical Emulation , Glenn Judd and Peter Steenkiste, HotNets-II, ACM, Novermber 2003.

 

17. Wireless Networking Testbeds

  • "A Large-scale Testbed for Reproducible Ad hoc Protocol Evaluations", H. Lundgren, D. Lundberg, J. Nielsen, E. Nordström, C. Tschudin, WCNC 2002.
  • Lowering the Barrier to Wireless and Mobile Experimentation
    Brian White, Jay Lepreau, ShashiGuruprasad, ACM HotNets-I, October 2002.
  • "Overview of the ORBIT Radio Grid Testbed for Evaluation of Next-Generation Wireless Network Protocols," D. Raychaudhuri, I. Seskar, M. Ott, S. Ganu, K. Ramachandran, H. Kremo, R. Siracusa, H. Liu and M. Singh, To appear at the Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC'05) March 2005.
  • Design Considerations for a Multi-hop Wireless Network Testbed, Pradipta De, AshishRaniwala, Srikant Sharma, and Tzi-ckerChiueh
  • "Wireless Link SNR Mapping Onto an Indoor Testbed," J. Lei, R. Yates, L. Greenstein and H. Liu, Submitted to IEEE Tridentcom 2005 (light reading only!!)

Dedication xv

Foreword xvii

Preface xix

Acknowledgments xxi

1 A History of Wireless Technologies 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Where it all began – Marconi 1

1.3 Packet Data 4

1.4 Voice Technologies 6

1.5 Cellular Technologies 6

2 Understanding Spread Spectrum Technologies 7

2.1 Introduction 7

2.2 What Spread Spectrum Does 8

2.3 How Spread Spectrum Works 9

2.3.1 Frequency Hopping 9

2.3.2 Direct Sequence 10

2.4 Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum 10

2.5 Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum 13

3 Multiple Access Wireless Communications 17

3.1 Introduction 17

3.2 CDMA Overview 18

3.3 Introduction to CDMA 19

3.4 Principles of CDMA 20

3.5 Common Air Interface 21

3.6 Forward CDMA Channel 22

3.7 Frequency Plan 22

3.8 Transmission Parameters 22

3.9 Overhead Channels 23

3.9.1 Pilot Channel 23

3.9.2 Sync Channel 23

3.9.3 Paging Channel 24

3.9.4 Traffic Channel 24

3.10 Soft Handoff 24

3.11 Rate 25

3.12 Power Control Subchannel 25

3.13 Timing 25

3.14 Reverse CDMA Channel 25

3.14.1 Frequency Plan 26

3.14.2 Transmission Parameters 26

3.15 Signal Structure 26

3.15.1 Channelization 26

3.15.2 Separation of Users 26

3.15.3 Orthogonal Modulation 27

3.15.4 Traffic Channel 27

3.15.5 Soft Handoff 27

3.15.6 Rate 27

3.15.7 Timing 28

3.16 TDMA 28

3.16.1 TDMA Standards 29

4 GSM 31

4.1 Introduction 31

4.2 Overview 32

4.2.1 The Mobile Station (MS) 34

4.2.2 The Base Station Subsystem (BSS) 34

4.2.3 The Base Transceiver Station (BTS) 34

4.2.4 The Network Subsystem 35

4.2.5 The Operation and Maintenance Center (OMC) 36

4.3 Interfaces and Protocols 36

4.3.1 Protocols 37

4.3.2 The Air Interface 38

4.3.3 Logical Channels on the Air Interface 41

4.3.4 Traffic Channels on the Air Interface 42

4.3.5 Signaling Channels on the Air Interface 43

4.3.6 Burst Formats 45

5 GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) for GSM 47

5.1 Introduction 47

5.2 Always Online 49

5.3 Differences between GPRS/GSM and cdmaOne 49

5.3.1 GSM 49

5.3.2 cdmaOne IS-95 50

5.3.3 Analysis 50

6 iMode 51

6.1 Introduction 51

6.2 What is iMode? 51

6.2.1 What does a Typical iMode Screen look like? 52

6.3 Technology 52

6.3.1 Smart Phone 52

6.3.2 Transmission System 53

6.3.3 Markup Language 53

6.4 Impacts to Information Systems 53

6.5 Why is iMode so Successful? 54

6.5.1 Bandwidth for Downloading Data 54

6.6 Security on iMode 55

6.7 iMode 4G 55

6.7.1 4G Data Rates in Japan 56

6.8 Conclusion 56

7 UMTS 57

7.1 Introduction 57

7.2 What is UMTS? 58

7.3 A Brief History of UMTS 58

7.4 Spectrum for UMTS 59

7.5 Phases Towards the Development of UMTS 59

7.6 UMTS/3G Industry 60

7.6.1 Cost 60

7.7 3G and UMTS Technology 60

7.8 3G Network Planning 61

7.8.1 Prerequisite for a 3G Network Design 61

7.8.2 Operator’s Business Plan 62

7.8.3 UMTS License Agreement 62

7.8.4 Operators Funding Plan 62

7.8.5 Operators Risk Analysis Documents 62

7.8.6 Consultant Reports 63

7.8.7 Government Statistics 63

7.8.8 RAN Planning 66

7.8.9 Core Network Planning 68

7.8.10 UMTS Security 69

7.8.11 3G and LAN Data Speeds 70

7.8.12 3G Frequencies 71

7.9 Owners of the 3G Networks 72

8 Wireless Data Networks 81

8.1 Data Networks and Internetworking 82

8.1.1 What is an Internetwork? 82

8.1.2 Open System Interconnection Reference Model 84

8.1.3 OSI Protocols 85

8.1.4 OSI Model and Communication Between Systems 86

8.2 The OSI Layers 88

8.2.1 The Physical Layer – OSI Layer 1 88

8.2.2 The Link Layer – OSI Layer 2 89

8.2.3 The Network Layer – OSI Layer 3 89

8.2.4 The Transport Layer – OSI Layer 4 90

8.2.5 The Session Layer – OSI Layer 5 90

8.2.6 The Presentation Layer – OSI Layer 6 91

8.2.7 The Application Layer – OSI Layer 7 91

8.3 ISO Hierarchy of Networks 92

8.4 Internetwork Addressing 92

8.4.1 Data Link Layer Addresses 93

8.4.2 MAC Addresses 93

8.4.3 Mapping Addresses 93

8.4.4 Network Layer Addresses 95

8.4.5 Hierarchical Versus Flat Address Space 95

8.4.6 Address Assignments 95

8.4.7 Addresses Versus Names 96

8.5 Introduction to Wireless Data Networks 96

8.5.1 802.11 Types – What do they all mean? 96

8.6 MAC 98

8.7 PHY 99

8.7.1 Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) PHY 100

8.7.2 The Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) PHY 100

8.7.3 Infrared (IR) PHY 100

8.7.4 Physical Layer Extensions to IEEE 802.11 100

8.7.5 Geographic Regulatory Bodies 101

8.8 The 802.11 Standards (WLAN or WI-FI) 102

8.8.1 Defining Wireless LAN Requirements 102

8.8.2 Minimizing 802.11 Interference Issues 104

8.8.3 Multipath Propagation Defined 106

8.8.4 A Typical Design and Deployment 107

8.9 Security 131

8.9.1 Potential Security Issues with Wireless LAN Systems 132

8.10 Overview of 802.11b Security Mechanisms 132

8.10.1 SSID – Network Name 133

8.10.2 WEP – Wired Equivalent Privacy 134

8.11 Authentication and Association 136

8.11.1 Authentication Process 136

8.11.2 Association Process 137

8.11.3 Authenticated and Associated 137

8.11.4 Probing Phase 137

8.11.5 Authentication Phase 138

8.11.6 Association Phase 138

8.12 Wireless Tools 138

8.12.1 Basic Tools 139

8.12.2 Advanced Tools 139

8.13 Penetration Testing on 802.11 139

8.13.1 Installing the ORiNOCO NIC 140

8.13.2 Setting up the Sniffers 141

8.13.3 War Driving – The Fun Begins 142

8.13.4 The Penetration 143

8.13.5 Problems caused by Wireless Hackers 144

8.13.6 Security Recommendations 145

8.14 The 802.15 WPAN Standard (Bluetooth) 147

8.14.1 Overview of the 802.15 WPAN 147

8.14.2 High-Level View 148

8.14.3 The General Requirements of 802.15 150

8.14.4 How WPANs differ from WLANs 151

8.14.5 Power Levels and Coverage 152

8.14.6 Control of the Medium 152

8.14.7 Lifespan of the Network 154

8.14.8 802.15 Security 154

8.14.9 Authentication 156

8.15 The 802.16 Standard 158

8.16 Mobile IP 158

8.16.1 The Security of Mobile IP 158

9 RFID 161

9.1 Introduction 161

9.1.1 What are RFID Systems? 161

9.1.2 EAS Systems 162

9.1.3 Multibit EAS Tags 163

9.1.4 Summary of Limitations of RFID Technologies in their Current State of Development 168

9.1.5 What are Transponders? 168

9.1.6 How RFID Systems Work 178

10 Connecting the Last Mile 183

10.1 Introduction 183

10.2 LMDS 184

11 Wireless Information Security (W-INFOSEC) 187

11.1 Introduction 187

11.2 Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) 188

11.3 What is a PKI? 189

11.4 PKI and Other Security Methods 190

11.4.1 Username/Password 190

11.4.2 Biometrics 190

11.4.3 Tokens/Smart Cards 190

11.4.4 SSL Protected Messages 190

11.5 Digital Certificates 192

11.6 Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS) 193

11.6.1 WTLS 193

11.6.2 WAP 195

11.6.3 WEP 195

11.6.4 WPKI 199

11.7 Authentication and Integrity 201

11.8 Security Threats 202

11.8.1 Denial-of-Service Attack 202

11.8.2 Replay Attacks 202

11.8.3 Theft of Information or Passive Eavesdropping 203

11.8.4 Session-Stealing (for Theft of Information) Attack 203

11.8.5 Secure Tunneling 203

11.9 HIPAA (USA) 204

12 Convergence: 3RD Generation Technologies 205

12.1 CDMA2000 206

12.2 CDMA2000 Types 206

12.2.1 CDMA2000 1X 206

12.2.2 CDMA2000 1X EV-DO 206

12.2.3 CDMA2000 1X EV-DV 206

12.2.4 CDMA2000 3X 206

12.3 Operator Benefits of CDMA2000 207

12.3.1 Air Link 207

12.3.2 Optimized Throughput 207

12.3.3 Separation of Voice and Data 207

12.3.4 Stand-alone System 208

13 What Does the Future Hold for Wireless Technologies? 209

13.1 COPS 209

13.2 Will Wireless LANS Hurt 3G? 210

14 4th Generation 211

References 215

Acronyms and Abbreviations 217

Glossary 221

Index 229

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