Rules for Answering Science Essay Questions
1. Think about your answer before you start to write. Plan and organize what you will say.
2. Restate the question in the first sentence of your answer.
a. Example: Why was Alfred Wegener's theory of plate tectonics debated by scientists?
Wegener's theory of plate tectonics was debated by scientists because …
3. NEVER begin an answer with a pronoun (they, he, it …), the word “because”, or the phrase, “The reason is because …”
4. Use complete sentences. Every sentence should make sense, so read through your answer carefully to make sure you don’t have missing words or jumbled thoughts.Nonsense or unclear answers = no credit.
5. Answer all parts of each question. Missing parts = missing points.
6. Include detail in your answer. Be specific by including facts and additional information related to the question. NEVER use the words “stuff” or “things”.
7. Include vocabulary in your answer. When you use a vocabulary term, also explain the word’s meaning in the context of the answer.
8. Write neatly even if it takes you longer. If your writing is hard to read, then it’s hard for me to read, so it’s hard to grade. If I cannot read it, I won’t grade it.
It’s essential that we encourage our students to develop their effective science communication skills in frequent low-stakes activities, such as quick-writes and short paragraphs. (Syda Productions/Shutterstock)
When my students see a writing prompt on the board, inevitably one of them sighs and says, “this is science, not english class!”
This always makes for a great discussion about what scientists do, and how the majority of their work involves reading, writing, and math. All scientists, and science students, must be able to effectively communicate their ideas. The Common Core Standards for Science and Technical Subjects grades 6-8 expect students to use the knowledge they gain from experiments, multimedia sources such as graphics or videos, and texts. Students also must be able to identify the author’s purpose and claim, and extract evidence that supports this claim.
Writing should not be reserved for special occasions, like research papers and lab reports. Instead, it is essential that we encourage our students to develop their effective science communication skills in frequent low-stakes activities, such as quick-writes and short paragraphs.
Writing in science also must go hand-in-hand with reading engaging and interesting pieces of text. There is a time and place for science textbooks. However, they rarely spark students’ love of science. Replace textbook reading with current event articles and news stories. Kids Discover Online has many great informational pieces and text on a wide variety of topics. Some of my other favorite sources for current events are Science News for Students (Society for Science), and NASA’s Jet Propulsion Lab News.
I use writing prompts as warm-up activities in my science class to build prior knowledge and get students brains to shift to science. Occasionally I collect their informal writing, but I never grade it. I prefer to keep the stakes low, and remove that pressure from my students. Typically, I’m circulating the class as students are writing, peeking over their shoulders, and asking them questions about their writing that will encourage them to write more.
Here are six writing prompts that will get our students’ brains in gear for writing in science:
- Who is a scientist you admire? Why do you admire them? What qualities do they have that make them special?
- Describe how our lives would be different if the lightbulb had never been invented.
- “Science, my lad, is made up of mistakes, but they are mistakes which it is useful to make, because they lead little by little to the truth” (Jules Verne). What does this quote mean to you?
- Are humans hurting or helping our environment? Support your answer with evidence from your experiences.
- Should we colonize Mars? Why or why not?
- Science is all around us, when we do things like cook, ride a bike, or watch TV. Pick a hobby or activity you do at least once a week, and explain how science is involved.
Anytime we write, at any grade level, it is important to scaffold the writing. Providing sentence starters and paragraph frames is an easy and simple way to support all learners. Also, allowing students to first brainstorm their ideas with a partner before they write is also a simple way to improve students’ writing.
One of my favorite ways to scaffold writing is to have students first do a quickdraw. Students divide a piece of paper in two (can also be done on any app that allows students to draw), hamburger style. I project the writing prompt, and give them 5 silent minutes to draw their answer. Then, I project the same prompt, and have them write their response. I’ve done this as a stand-alone writing prompt, in response to an article, and as a reflection on a short 3-4 minute video.
A new thing I’m excited to try in 2017 is Recap, an app and website that allows students to record short video responses to a prompt. As a teacher, I can listen to my students’ speaking skills, and watch as their confidence grows.
How will you get your students writing more in 2017?
6 Writing Prompts to Jumpstart Your Science Class | Mari Venturino