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Dna Rna Protein Synthesis Homework #3 Dna Replication

DNA Replication & Transcription

In principle: DNA replication is semi-conservative [HOMEWORK]
       H - bonds 'unzip', strands unwind,
        complementary nucleotides added to existing strands
             After replication, each double-helix has one "old" & one "new" strand

       DNA is not  the "Genetic Code" for proteins
               information in DNA must first be transcribed into RNA
               messenger RNA transcript is base-complementary to template strand of DNA
                                                                       & therefore co-linear with sense strand of DNA

       DNA & RNA syntheses occur only in the  5'  3' direction

DNA synthesis in prokaryotes:
     Nucleotides are added simultaneously to both strands, but
DNA grows in the 5'  3' direction ONLY  [iG1 10.10]

         (online MGA2 animation)

 Distinguish:
   Replication: duplication of a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecule
                         an exact 'copy' of the existing molecule (cf. xerox copy)
   Synthesis: biochemical creation of a new single-stranded DNA (ssdNA) molecule
                        a base-complementary 'copy' of an existing strand (cf. silly putty copy)
                        occurs only in the  5'  3' direction

   Homework #5

   DNA Synthesis in prokaryotes 
         Formation of replication fork at Origin of Replication[iG1 10.16, 19]
                   provides two single-stranded DNA template (ssDNA)
                  multiple replications forks (replicons) [HOMEWORK]
        Synthesis of RNA primer[iG1 10.15]
        Addition of dNTPs  by  DNA Polymerase (DNAPol III) at 3' end only
                  continuous synthesis on leading strand [iG1 10.13]
                  discontinuous synthesis on lagging strand [iG1 10.20]
                     Okazaki fragments
                        proof-reading  by 3'5'exonuclease activity [iG1 10.12]
                  
leading & lagging strand synthesis simultaneously[iG1 10.21]
                       A single, dimericDNAPol IIIreplicates both strands
        Excision of RNA primer by DNAPol I
              ligation
(connection) of fragment ends at gaps by DNA ligase [iG1 10.22]

        [onlineMGA2 animation]

    DNA synthesis in eukaryotes

       Eukaryotic genomes are much larger [the "C-value Paradox"]
                  eukaryotic DNA synthesis is more efficient:
      More DNAPol molecules, slower rate of synthesis, more replicons on multiple chromosomes

Transcription: synthesis of messenger RNA (mRNA) (online MGA2 animation)


    What is a "Gene"[iGen3 05-03]


     RNA transcribed from DNA by RNA Polymerase(RNAPolI) [iG1 4.17]
            (1) Recognition of transcriptional unit: ~ 'gene' [iG1 4.18]
                      Promoters - short DNA sequences that regulate transcription
                          typically 'upstream' = 'leftward' from 5' end of sense strand[iG1 4.12]
            (2) Initiation & Elongation[iG1 4.22, 23, 24]
                      mRNA synthesized 5'3'  from DNA template strand
                      mRNA sequence therefore homologous to DNA sense strand

                          Colinear: mRNA and DNA sense strand "line up"

                                            (in prokaryotes, but not eukaryotes: see below)
                          Process similar to DNA replication [iG1 4.25], except
                               No primer
is required
                              Transcription may occur from either strand
                               Most DNA is not transcribed into RNA
            (3) Termination [iG1 4.27, 28, 29]

    Regulation of transcription
          In prokaryotes, transcription & translation may occur simultaneously
          In eukaryotes, transcription occurs in nucleus [ex.: Lampbrush chromosomes]
                                     translation occurs in cytoplasm (see next section):
              RNA must cross nuclear membrane
                        transcription  & translation are physically separated
                        primary RNA transcript is extensively processed
                        heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA mRNA

    Post-transcriptional processing of eukaryoticRNA is complex[iG1 4.9]
          promoters [iG1 4.19] & enhancers [iG1 ] determine initiation & control rate
          'cap' (7-methyl guanosine, 7mG) added to 5' end [iG1 4.26]
          'tail' of poly-A (5'-~~~AAAAAAAAAA-3') added to 3' end[iG1 4.33]
          'splicing' of hnRNA : eukaryotic genes are "split"
              intronDNA sequence equivalents removed from hnRNA : "intervening"
              exon   DNA sequence equivalents represented in mRNA:  "expressed" in protein
                        1 ~ 12's of exons / 'gene'
                         >90% of transcript may be 'spliced out'
                              [An important note on terminology]
             Splicing mechanism uses donor and acceptor sites [iG1 5.18, 19, 20]

             Eukaryotic genes & mRNA are not colinear!
                DNA / RNA hybridization produces heteroduplexes
                    DNAintrons 'loop out'
                    DNAexons pair with mRNA
                 Eukaryotic exons may be widely separated
    
     Alternative splicing of the same transcript produces different products [iG1 4.16]
        Different exon regions are combined as different mRNAs [iG1 5.01]
        Alternative exon combinations differ functionally [iG1 5.22]


Homework #6: Problem-solving with DNA & RNA

Ongoing Homework problem:
       What is a 'gene'? How do the discoveries of (1) introns and exons amd (2) alternative splicing in eukaryotic genomes modify the concept?

All text material © 2014 by Steven M. Carr


Product Description

This homework assignment covers the replication of DNA. Students will answer questions about replication, the enzymes involved in replication, and proofreading the DNA. This completed homework assignment turns into an excellent study guide for the unit test.

This product contains 1 of 4 different homework assignments that I use when teaching a unit on DNA, RNA and Protein Synthesis.

I have divided the information into the following four assignments:
Homework #1: DNA: The Basics
Homework #2: DNA Replication
Homework #3: RNA and Transcription
Homework #4: Translation and Protein Synthesis

This listing is for the second assignment only: DNA Replication. You can buy all 4 assignments bundled together by clicking on this link: Bundle of 4 DNA and RNA homework assignments

PLEASE NOTE: This PowerPoint is also included in a bundled unit plan containing 20 different products on DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis. You can view the bundled unit plan by clicking here: DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis Complete Unit Plan.


This assignment was written for my Biology I class. It covers the concepts found in any Biology I text. This homework assignment contains questions of varying formats: Compare and contrast terms, fill in the blank, multiple choice, short answer, and true/false.

This is what is covered on this assignment:
Homework #2: DNA Replication (Total of 39 questions)

1. Replication
2. Steps of replication
3. Origins of replication and replication forks
4. Enzymes: Helicases and DNA polymerases
5. DNA proofreading
6. Repairing damage to DNA: Enzymes nucleases, DNA polymerases, ligases.

My materials are easily adaptable. You can easily add or delete questions. You will receive both a pdf and a Word document version of all assignments.

All answers are included.

Please let me know if you have any questions. Thanks for looking!

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